Several locals and climbers lost their lives during the exploration period of the Himalaya within a 100 year and that date was recorded as 1880 to 1960. At that time modern technology was not discovered to track out the location, but also the great effort, hard work and dedication of the explorers, finally they find out the routes in Himalayan peaks. We are trying to tribute for all climbers and locals, who lost their precious lives on the development of Himalayan routes, and for that we are dropping a few lines on the behalf of their respects.
W.W. Graham arrived in Kathmandu in 1883′purely to climb and purely for sport & the adventure’ to quote his own words. Accompanied by a swiss guide, he succeeded in ascending a 6100 unnamed peak in the vicinity of Kanchenjunga. This led to other ascents including attempts on Nanda Devi and Dunagiri. Graham’s reports were examined in England with great interest by alpinists and scientists, particularly the Royal Geographical Society. The Society went on to sponsor a major scientific and mountaineering expedition to the Karakoram led by an experienced alpinist, Martin Conway. Among the party was Lt Bruce of the 5th Gurkhas who, over the net forty years, did more to promote mountaineering in the Himalaya than any other individual.
Next on the scene was a rich middle-aged American couple. Fanny Bullock Workman and her husband spent fifteen years in the Himalaya. During eight expeditions, Fanny became the first woman to be seriously involved in Himalayan climbing.
Following the British incursion into Tibet concessions were agreed upon that gave mountaineers permission to climb specific Tibetan Peaks. In 1907 an Englishman, Tom Longstaff, climber Trishuli, at 7215 meters and this was to remain the highest peak climbed for the next twenty years. Two years later the Duke of Abruzzi, Prince Luigi Amedo of Savoy, a seasoned mountaineer and traveler, arrived in the Karakoram to attempt K2, the second highest mountain in the world. His hope of attempting Everest had been thwarted by the close of Tibet and Nepal. His team included Filippo de Filppi a doctor, and naturalist Federico Negrotto, as a topographer, Vittorio Sella, a Highly reputed photographer, seven Italian guides and over 300 local porters. Though the Duke and his party did not reach a summit, they explored, mapped and documented their activities in the Baltoro Glacier. They laid the foundations for the siege style of Himalayan ascent where a series style of camps is established with the aid of local porters.
Between the wars all the major peaks were attempted, but prior to 1950 only two major summits had been attained: Kamet, at 7761 meters in 1931 by Holdsworth, Shipton, Lewa and Smythe, and Nanda Devi at 7822 meters in 1936 by Tilman and Odell.
The 800 m Peaks
The breakthrough came when the French climbed Annapurna I in 1950, the first 8000 m peak to be conquered. A powerful team eventually succeeded after an epic ascent and descent in which the summits Maurice Herzog and Louis Lachenal were seriously frostbitten. Herzog’s vivid account Annapurna, is a classic of mountaineering literature.
Within five years of the French success, nearly all the highest peaks were climbed K2 fell, fittingly enough- as the Italians had explored the region to an Italian team in 1954, after it had repulsed several strong American attempts. Compagnoni and Lacedelli ascended the Abruzzi Ridge and, like the French, had an epic descent. The German eventually succeeded on Naga Parbat through the efforts of a mountaineering legend, Herman Bhul, who made a solo summit push and miraculously survived a night balancing in the middle of a rock face at 7930 meters without any bivouac equipment.
The British conquest of Mount Everest by Hillary and Tenzing in 1953 came as the culmination of over thirty years of effort by the Mount Everest committee, a joint venture between the Alpine Club and the Royal Geographical Society. The first attempt sponsored by the committee was in 1921. The second full-scale attempt in 1924 from the north side led by Colonel Norton almost met with success, but when Mallory and Irving disappeared on the upper slopes of the North Col at a height of about 8525 meters another mountaineering legend came into being.